EXECUTION BY ELECTROCUTION
MODULAR ELECTROCUTION SYSTEM MANUAL
STATE of TENNESSEE
FRED A. LEUCHTER ASSOCIATES., INC.
Modular Electrocution System OPERATION and INSTRUCTION MANUAL
Department of Correction
State of Tennessee
Riverbend Maximum Security Institution
Michael Dutton, Warden
7475 Cockrill Bend Industrial Road
Nashville, Tennessee 37209
November 27, 1989
Fred A. Leuchter Associates, Inc.
231 Kennedy Drive
Boston, Massachusetts 02148
Maintenance and Test....................................14
Power Supply Test Unit..................................19
1. Schematic--Modular Electrocution System.
2. Schematic--Power Supply Test Unit.
3. Mechanical--Modular Power Supply.
THE FRED A. LEUCHTER ASSOCIATES, INC. MODULAR ELECTROCUTION SYSTEM
The design of an electrocution system involves the consideration of a few, but very significant, requirements. Voltage, current, connections, duration and number of current applications (jolts).
First, the system should contain three (3) electrodes. The head should be fitted with a tightly fitting cap containing an electrode with a saline solution moistened sponge. It is through this electrode that the current is introduced. Second, each ankle should be tightly fitted with an electrode, causing the current to divide and guaranteeing passage through the complete trunk of the subjects body. Use of one (1) ankle electrode (instead of two ) will almost always ensure a longer and more difficult electrocution. These two (2) ankle electrodes are the return path of the current. Contact should be enhanced by using saline salve or a sponge moistened with a saline solution at each of the ankle connections. It is of the utmost importance that good circuit continuity, with a minimum amount of resistance, be maintained at the electrode contacts. Further, a minimum of 2000 volts ac must be maintained, after voltage drop, to guarantee permanent disruption of the functioning of the autonomic nervous system. Voltages lower than 2000 volts ac, at saturation, cannot guarantee heart death and are, thus, not adequate for electrocution, in that they may cause unnecessary trauma to the subject prior to death. Failure to adhere to these basic requirements could result in pain to the subject and failure to achieve heart death, leaving a brain dead subject in the chair.
During electrocution there are two (2) factors that must be considered: the conscious and the autonomic nervous systems. Voltages in excess of 1500 volts ac are generally sufficient to destroy the conscious nervous system, that which controls pain and understanding. Generally, unconsciousness occurs in 4.16 milliseconds, which is 1/240 part of a second. This is twenty-four (24) times as fast as the subjects conscious nervous system can record pain. The autonomic nervous system is a little more difficult, however, and generally requires in excess of 2000 volts ac to seize the pacemaker in the subjects heart. Generally, we compute the voltage at 2000 volts ac plus 20%. After the voltage is applied and the subjects body saturates, the voltage has dropped about 10% (depending upon the resistance of the electrode contacts and that of the subject body) and this should be taken into consideration, as well. Current should be kept under six (6) amperes to minimize body damage (cooking).
Ideally, the voltage is calculated thus:
The average man weighing 70 kilos (154 lbs.) requires 2000 volts ac to seize the heart.
Increase the voltage by 20% to accommodate subjects with greater resistance.
2000 volts ac plus 20% equals 2400 volts ac.
Increase voltage by 10% for drop at saturation.
2400 volts ac plus 10% equals 2640 volts ac.
Thus, the voltage should be 2640 volts ac.
This 2640 volts ac should be applied in two (2) jolts of one (1) minute each, spaced at a ten (10) second interval. On occasion, the subjects heart will spasm, instead of seizing, during the first application of current and the application of the second jolt will generally eliminate this problem. This spasm is due to excessive chemical build-up (acetylcholine and sympathin) at the nerve junctions and the ten (10) second wait generally allows for dissipation of the chemicals.
Fred A. Leuchter Associates, Inc. manufactures a low-cost, state-of-the-art modular system for electrocution. The system utilizes solid state circuitry for control and timing, current regulation to five (50) milliamperes (1%) and single and two (2) station control for operation. It is designed with plug-in components for ease in repair and maintenance, and because of its modular design can be installed in very little time by untrained personnel.
The control system is designed for a timing sequence which will deliver two (2) one (1) minute jolts at minimum of 2400 volts ac spaced ten (10) seconds apart. To guarantee fail-safe operation, a redundant system's timer activates and shuts down the system if any of the sequential timers fail. Additionally, there are two (2) modes of operation: single station and two (2) station. In single station, one (1) push button switch controls the operation. In two (2) station, two (2) switches are utilized and logic (computer) circuitry determines which switch causes operation. The two (2) station mode precludes the use of an executioner, since no one knows which of the two (2) switches activated the system. The system does not retain the operating switch in memory. Further, since the controls are operated electronically, the operator handles only low voltage equipment, being completely isolated from the high voltage, guaranteeing operator safety.
The high voltage circuitry is designed to deliver 2640 volts ac upon activation and, as the load saturates and the current increases, the voltage stabilizes at (or above) 2400 volts ac. The current is limited to five (5) amperes, maximum, by a current regulator. The voltage, in accordance with the standard formula for admittance, will drop approximately 10% or 240 volts, but the current will never exceed five (5) amperes with 1% (five  milliampere) regulation. A current limiting breaker protects the load in the event of a regulator failure and will open the circuit at six (6) amperes. The equipment is protected by a ninety (90) ampere overcurrent breaker.
The Power Supply
The power supply consists of a 208 volt ac primary, 2640 volt as secondary transformer coupled to a saturable reactor with current monitoring circuitry, two (2) overcurrent limits and a high voltage contactor.
It is designed to deliver five (5) amperes at 1% (fifty  milliampere) regulation at 2400 volts ac, plus 10% (240 volts ac). This means that when the circuit is closed, 2640 volts ac is fed into the load. As the load saturates, the current increases and the voltage drops. At approximately ten (10) seconds into operation, the load is fully saturated and will appear to be approaching a direct short circuit. The current regulator, however, limits the current to five (5) amperes at the saturation voltage point of 2400 (minimum) volts ac. If the current regulator fails, an over current breaker is set to trip at six (6) amperes.
The system operates by monitoring output current, processing it in a direct current amplifier, and applying it to a direct current coil which controls the flux density in the core of the reactor. It is, essentially, a highly accurate magnetic amplifier.
Additionally, the power supply contains overcurrent protection for both the equipment and the load and an output contactor for closing the high voltage circuit to the Electric Chair. All connections to the power supply, except those for the 208 volts ac in, which are terminal block, are via two (2) military-type circular connectors.
The Control Console
The control console is a sloped metal panel cabinet containing the timing circuitry, computer controlled switching circuitry and controls for the system operation. It contains two (2) key switches for circuit control and a key-controlled fail-safe switch for high voltage output.
The timing sequence is accomplished with two (2) solid-state one (1) minute timers and one (1) ten (10) second timer cascaded from a system's timer of 130 seconds, guaranteeing system shutdown after 130 seconds even in the event of a sequential timer failure. Timer activation is all by precision relay.
One (1) and two (2) station control is standard and is facilitated by solid-state circuitry. In single station control, one (1) switch operates an electronic relay and activates the system. In two (2) station control, two (2) switches are utilized and the logic (computer) circuitry chooses the switch which will activate the relay. This insures that no one will know which operator controlled the circuit, as with a firing squad. The system does not retain the operating switch in memory.
The Electric Chair
The electric chair consists of an oaken chair with an adjustable backrest, inherent leg electrodes, a leather and sponge helmet with electrode, a drip pan, a plexiglass seat and a non-incremental restraint system. It is covered with a high gloss epoxy paint similar to that which is used in the space program. It is connected to the power supply via one military type connector. This chair was fabricated in part with wood from Tennessee's original electric chair.
The ankle electrodes, which are fabricated onto the leg stock, are turned of solid brass. They accommodate a #6 conductor and are paralleled to ground.
The helmet consists of an outer helmet of leather and an inner helmet of copper mesh and sponge. It will disassemble for repair and the electrode will accommodate a #6 conductor.
The chair design includes a removable drip pan. The straps are of nylon aircraft construction and consist of two (2) ankle straps, two (2) wrist straps and one (1) cross-the- chest harness, all with quick release fasteners. All fasteners comprising the restraints are non-incremental, enabling a tighter fit.
The entire system, because of its modular design, may be installed by non-technical people in several hours and is fully field repairable.
Voltage: 208 volts ac in, 2400 volts ac plus 10% or 2640 volts ac out.
Current: five (5) amperes at 1% (fifty  milliampere) regulation.
Over current protection: six (6) amperes; ninety (90) amperes; load and equipment respectively.
Input: 208 volts ac, 75 Amp, 60 Hz, 15.5 VA.
Disconnect rated 208 volts ac, 100 Amp.
Main Transformer: Primary-195 volts ac, 68 amps, 13.2 KVA. Secondary-2640 volts ac, 5 amp.
Saturable reactor: 75 amp, 15 KVA.
Control Transformer: Primary-208 volts ac.
Secondary-110 volts ac, 50-60 Hz, 750 KVA.
Meters: 1 volt, 1 amp.
Terminations: two (2) MS (military-type) circular connectors, console and high voltage output. Terminal block, 208 volts ac input.
Enclosure: NEMA 12.
Voltage: 110 volts ac.
Over current protection: one (1) ampere; three (3) ampere.
Timing: sequential--one (1) minute; ten (10) seconds; one (1) minute. All solid-state with a 130 second system's timer.
Switches: three (3) lock type--two (2) for circuit control operation, one (1) for system fail-safe; two (2) operator switches.
Terminations: one (1) MS (military-type) circular connector.
Electrodes: all turned of solid brass, two (2) leg, one (1) helmet.
Helmet: leather, copper mesh and sponge.
Straps: nylon, aircraft-type; quick release.
Fred A. Leuchter Associates, Inc. assumes no liability for the intended or actual use of this device.
1. Determine that the main disconnect is off. If not, turn off.
2. Determine that the Power Supply input circuit breaker is off. If not, turn off.
3. Determine that all switches on the Control Console are off: POWER ON switch and COMPUTER ON switch in left off position. Note specifically that ELECTRIC CHAIR FAILSAFE switch is in center off position.
4. Connect control cable between the Power Supply and the Control Console by inserting the polarized connectors and tightening the connector nuts. Connect the Control Console end first. The power is now supplied to the Control Console.
5. Verify power at the Control Console by turning Power On switch to right and verify SYSTEM ON light. Turn COMPUTER ON switch to right and verify COMPUTER ON light.
6. Verify ELECTRIC CHAIR FAILSAFE SWITCH by turning switch to left (OPERATION POSITION). Note that the ELECTRIC CHAIR ENERGIZED light is not on. If light is on, there is a system malfunction or someone activated the timing sequence. VERIFY. Turn the ELECTRIC CHAIR FAILSAFE SWITCH off (center) and then to the left (TEST POSITION). Verify ELECTRIC CHAIR ENERGIZED light on. Output contactor on Power Supply is closed. Turn all switches off in reverse sequence. Turn off the power supply input circuit breaker and the main disconnect, in that order.
Note Well: do not proceed unless the ELECTRIC CHAIR ENERGIZED light is OFF.
7. Complete test of Control Console as per instructions.
8. Complete test of Power Supply as per instructions.
9. Complete test of Electric Chair as per instructions.
10. Connect power cable between the Power Supply and the Electric Chair by inserting polarized connectors and tightening the connector nuts. Connect Electric Chair end first.
11. Turn on main disconnect.
12. Turn on Power Supply input circuit breaker. The Electrocution System is now ENERGIZED and ready for use.
NOTE WELL: Turn off both main disconnect and input circuit breaker when not using chair.
DANGER THE SYSTEM IS LIVE. Follow to Operational Procedure.
1. Steps 1. through 12. of SET UP should have been completed earlier.
2. Determine that the main disconnect is off and that the input circuit breaker to the Power Supply is off. Remove all keys to the Control Console and determine that all switches are off. If not, turn off. Determine that the Electric Chair Energized light is off. If not, shut electric chair failsafe switch to off (center position). DO NOT PROCEED UNLESS ELECTRIC CHAIR ENERGIZED LIGHT IS OFF. Only one key is to be used for operation.
3. Prepare subject for electrocution: Shave approximately a three Inch (3") diameter spot on the top of executee's head. Cut pants off to knees, slit pants to knees or supply subject with short pants.
4. Mix a saturated saline (salt water) solution (add salt until it will no longer mix to lukewarm water).
5. Wet sponge in helmet (saturate).
6. Wet ankle sponges if a determination is made that they are to be utilized. Use of sponges is recommended in most cases.
7. Loosen all adjustments in restraint system and move backrest all the way back.
8. Refer to special Protocol for logistic procedure.
9. Sedate subject either orally or with injection if permissible. A 5cc Injection of Versed (Midazolam HCL) 1 mg/ml has been used in the past for sedating executees. Orally, two (2) 50mg capsules of Nembutal Sodium (Pentobarbital sodium USP) Abbott Pharmaceuticals NDC 0074-3150-11. Another alternative would be 1.5 oz. of an 80 proof whiskey. This should be done one half (1/2) hour prior to the execution.
10. Curtain on witness window should be opened.
11. Subject must walk into execution chamber and speak to shown he is alive.
12. Curtain on witness window should be closed.
13. Executee should be strapped into chair in the following manner:
A. Connect and tighten waist harness.
B. Tighten shoulder adjustments.
NOTE WELL: All connectors should be kept centered by adjusting both sides of adjustors.
C. Connect and tighten arm restraints, centering connectors.
D. Insert subject's legs into electrodes on leg stock and connect and adjust the restraints keeping the connectors in the center. The saturated saline sponges are recommended and may be placed behind the subject's leg between the leg and the electrode.
NOTE WELL: All adjustment should be as tight as possible at this time.
E. Install saline saturated helmet on the executee's head and tighten chin strap as tight as possible. The face curtain is optional and may be installed at this time.
F. Insert helmet conductor into electrode on helmet and tighten handscrew. Tighten further with allen wrench.
G. Loosen backrest adjuster, pull backrest as far forward as possible (tightening the subject) and tighten backrest adjuster locking the backrest in place.
NOTE WELL: Subject is now ready for execution.
14. Open the witness window curtain.
15. The Doctor should now examine the subject and certify that he is alive.
16. Turn on main disconnect.
17. Turn on input circuit breaker to the Power Supply.
18. On order from the Warden, the key will be inserted and the Power On switch will be turned on. The System On Light will be verified. The key will be removed.
19. On order from the Warden, the key will be inserted and the Computer On switch will be turned on only if a two operator procedure is to be utilized. The Computer On (Double) light will be verified. The key will be removed.
20. When the Warden determines that the execution will proceed, he will order that the key will be inserted and the Electric Chair Failsafe switch will be turned from center position to the Operation position to the left.
WARNING: THE SYSTEM IS NOW ARMED. DO NOT TOUCH THE ACTIVATION BUTTONS (SINGLE OR DOUBLE).
21. On order from the Warden, the execution will commence. One (1) or two (2) executioners will push either the SINGLE or DOUBLE buttons, simultaneously, if two. Verify the Electric Chair Energized light.
NOTE: The system will now deliver Two (2) Jolts of current, each for one (1) minute with a ten (10) second off time separating the two (2) Jolts. If a failure occurs on Double operation, simply activate the Single button and the timing sequence will proceed. If a further failure occurs, operate the system in manual by turning the Electric Chair Failsafe switch to TEST position (right) and time with a watch or clock: Sixty (60) seconds on; Ten (10) seconds off; Sixty (60) seconds on. Upon completion, turn Electric Chair Failsafe switch to off (center) position. Proceed with step twenty-two (22).
22. Upon completion of the timing sequence the subject should be dead. Turn off the Electric Chair Failsafe switch (center position) and VERIFY that the Electric Chair Energized light is off. Do NOT proceed unless the Electric Chair Energized light is off.
23. Use key to shut off Computer On switch and Power On switch, both to the left in this order.
24. Shut off input circuit breaker to the Power Supply and the main disconnect, in this order.
NOTE: If Electric Chair Energized light is not off, turn off main disconnect.
25. The Doctor should now verify heart death of the executee.
NOTE: If death has not occurred, Proceed with steps sixteen (16) through Twenty-five (25) again.
26. The execution is now over.
27. Close witness window curtain and remove witnesses.
28. Verify that all switches are off and the key removed. Verify that the input circuit breaker to the Power Supply is off. Verify that the main disconnect is off. Do NOT proceed until this step is complete and the Electric Chair Energized light is off.
28. The Executee should be removed from the chair in the following manner:
A. Disconnect helmet in reverse procedure of thirteen (13) F. Loosen and remove Helmet.
B. Pull release on ankle fasteners and pull legs forward.
C. Pull release on arm fasteners and free arms.
D. Pull release on chest harness fastener and subject's body will slump forward and hang in harness.
E. Remove subjects body to storage or pick-up location.
29. Clean chair seat with lysol or similar disinfectant and mild soap. Clean electrodes and with mild soap and water. Thoroughly dry chair. Wash and dry leg sponges.
30. Remove and dump drip pan; wash, dry and replace.
31. Clean helmet with clear water and dry. Store on styrofoam head.
32. Re-connect restraint system fasteners and partially tighten.
33. Verify all switches and power off.
34. Disconnect both the control cable and the power cable and coil for storage.
35. Remove all Keys.
RIVERBEND MAXIMUM SECURITY INSTITUTION
Follow special instructions in separate document in conjunction with the afore defined SET-UP and OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE.
FRED A. LEUCHTER ASSOCIATES, INC.
MODULAR ELECTROCUTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE AND TEST PROCEDURE
1. Inspect both cables for wear or damage. Repair if necessary.
2. Inspect helmet for wear or damage. Tighten screw. Repair if necessary. Check for continuity.
3. Inspect sponges for serviceability. Replace if necessary.
CONTROL CONSOLE TEST
4. Inspect chair for wear or damage. Clean electrodes with metal cleaner or steel wool. Tighten electrode connections with allen wrench. Check all wiring on chair for continuity.
5. Determine that the main disconnect is off and that the input circuit breaker to the power supply is off.
6. Connect control cable between the Control Console and the Power Supply, Control Console end first.
7. Turn on main disconnect.
8. Turn on input circuit breaker to Power Supply.
9. Turn on Power on switch. Verify System On light.
10. Turn on Computer On Switch. Verify Double light on and power to the computer. If either lamp fails, push the appropriate circuit breaker or replace lamp.
11. Turn Electric Chair Failsafe switch to Operation position (left). Verify Electric Chair Energized lamp is not on. Turn switch to Off (center) position.
12. Turn Electric Chair failsafe switch to Test (Right) position. Electric Chair Energized lamp should be on. If lamp fails, replace lamp.
13. Turn all switches off in reverse order.
14. Turn on Power on Switch. Turn Electric Chair Failsafe switch to operation (left) position.
The following is a test for the timing sequence and should be performed with a stopwatch.
15. Push Single operation button. Timing sequence should begin. Verify by timing duration of the Electric Chair Energized Light. Sequence should be sixty (60) seconds on; ten (10) seconds off; sixty (60) seconds on. If timing sequence is incorrect, re-set timers. Turn Power On switch off each time a sequence is initiated to reset system. Timer 1 is Systems Timer and must be set last. To begin reset, turn Timer 1 all the way up to maximum time. Set Timer 2 for sixty (60) seconds. Set Timer 3 for ten (10) seconds. Set timer 4 for sixty (60) seconds. Then set Timer 1 for one hundred-thirty (130) seconds. Precision on timer setting for timers 2, 3 and 4 may vary by several seconds but timer 1 must be set at a time which exceeds the total of the other three timers. Remember, for each timing sequence the system must be reset by turning Power On switch off between sequences. Turn Electric Chair Failsafe switch off; turn Computer On switch off; turn Power On switch off.
The following test is for the computer portion of the system.
16. Turn Power On switch on. Turn Computer On switch on.
Verify System On and Double lights as operational.
Turn Electric Chair Failsafe switch to Operation (left) position.
Push left button for double operation, alone.
Allow system to sequence.
To re-set, turn all switches off in reverse order.
Push right button, alone.
Allow system to sequence.
Re-set. Push both left and right buttons, simultaneously. Allow system to sequence.
Verify Electric Chair Energized light as operational for each sequence.
Turn all switches off in the reverse order.
Verify all lamps as off.
The system is now reset.
This concludes the low voltage portion of the test. The following test for the Power Supply should be conducted with great care in that it utilizes the full 2640 Volts.
POWER SUPPLY TEST
This test is to be conducted with the Fred A. Leuchter Associates, Inc. Electric Chair Modular Power Supply Test Unit. It may be conducted without the Test Unit as long as the test requirements are met. Test should be conducted with an equivalent of 528 ohms resistance at 13.2Kw. Some provision should be made to cool the resistor.
17. Verify that the main disconnect and the Power Supply input circuit breaker are both in the off position. Verify that all switches on the Control Console are off. Verify that the ELECTRIC CHAIR ENERGIZED LAMP IS OFF. Do NOT proceed unless all of the above conditions are met.
18. Connect the power cable between the Power Supply and the Electric Chair Modular Power Supply Test Unit, Test unit end first. This is connected in the same manner as is the Electric Chair.
19. Plug in Electric Chair Modular Power Supply Test Unit to 110 vac. Turn on fan switch and verify fan is functioning.
20. Turn on main disconnect. Turn on Power Supply input circuit breaker.
21. Turn on Power On Switch on Control Console. Verify System On light.
22. Turn Electric Chair Failsafe switch to operation position. The Test is now ready. Keep clear of Electric Chair Modular Power Supply Test Unit.
23. Push Single operator button to initiate test. Verify Electric Chair Energized light is on. System will sequence through timed execution. Monitor both voltmeter and ammeter on Power Supply to determine if both voltage and current are proper. Voltage should never drop below two-thousand (2000) vac and current should never exceed five (5) amperes. If any failure occurs, disconnect main and service system. At the end of the timing sequence the system will shut down and the test will be complete. Verify Electric Chair Energized light is off.
24. At sequence completion, turn Electric Chair failsafe switch to off. Verify Electric Chair Energized light is off. Turn Computer On switch to off, if used. Turn System On switch to off. Verify all lamps are out.
This test may be repeated as often as desired but not to exceed twice (2 times) in a ten minute interval.
This test may be accomplished alternatively without the use of the timing sequence utilizing the Electric Chair Failsafe switch in TEST position. Care must be taken not to exceed a time greater than four minutes on within a ten minute time period. You must turn the Electric Chair Failsafe switch to off position in order to terminate the test. This procedure should be done with a clock or stopwatch and only by a trained technician, electrician or plant engineer. A too-long duty cycle will damage the Test Unit and the Power Supply.
25. Shut off Power Supply input circuit breaker. SHUT OFF MAIN DISCONNECT.
26. Turn off fan and disconnect the Electric Chair Modular Power Supply Test Unit from the 110 vac. Put Test Unit away.
27. If System is to be used, connect the Electric Chair and repeat the test utilizing the timing sequence: Steps 20 through 25. If no use is to occur, disconnect the power cable from the Power Supply and store.
28. Verify All switches on the Control Console are off especially the Electric Chair Failsafe switch. Verify that the Power Supply input circuit breaker is off. Verify that the main disconnect is off.
1. Control Console. Service and repair should be performed by a Certified Electrocution Technician, electrician or technician. A schematic is enclosed. In most cases, a complete replacement of all plug in components can be accomplished by an untrained person. This will generally repair the system unless there is a defective switch or a broken wire.
2. Power Supply. Service and repair should be performed by a Certified Electrocution Technician with an electrician or technician. A manual and schematic are enclosed.
3. Testing of all components should be done by a Certified Electrocution Technician.
1. Fasten Electric Chair to floor.
2. Fasten Control Console to the Floor.
3. Fasten Power Supply to floor.
4. Verify main disconnect is off. Wire from main disconnect and connect conductors to terminals of Power Supply.
5. Proceed with test as described in MAINTENANCE AND TEST PROCEDURE.
THE ELECTRIC CHAIR MODULAR POWER SUPPLY TEST UNIT
The Fred A. Leuchter Associates, Inc. Modular Power Supply Test Unit is especially designed for use with the Fred A. Leuchter Associates, Inc. Modular Electrocution System. It replaces the electric chair in the system during testing and simulates the load of the chair occupied by an executee.
It contains an especially fabricated, harmonically balanced, twenty (20) component, high wattage resistor package which is cooled by a quadrafan assembly having an area of some 255 square inches and an aggregate airflow of some 2320 cfm. It mates with the connector to the electric chair.
Resistor Bank: Twenty (20) 26.4 ohm 375 watt resistors; total impedence 528 ohms, total wattage (KVA) 7500 at 200 % rating. Total 15 KVA.
Rating: 115 volts ac, 1.4 amps, 144 watts.
This test unit operates at 15 KVA, DO NOT touch unit while test is in progress.
FRED A. LEUCHTER ASSOCIATES, INC.
I am sending you the above photo of the old Tennessee Electric Chair before I rebuilt it. The photo contains some interesting and unexplained images. The Photo was examined by Eastman Kodak and determined to be authentic. The images are unexplained by the experts. The photo was taken as an experiment in Kirlian Photography to see if there was an energy aura where the electrodes were located. The procedure used was of some 5 exposures on a time exposure of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 second exposures in complete darkness. The second exposure was accidentally flashed with room light for 2 seconds. All but the 2 second exposure was blank (indicating on exposure on the film and no aura. The 2 second exposure produced the unexplained results. I was unable to duplicate the image. People have counted as many as five different images in the film. I do not know what was photographed, only that something was.
Fred A. Leuchter Associates, Inc.
231 Kennedy Drive
Boston, Massachusetts 02148
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